Vibrational spectroscopy has been applied widely in biological and medical area. Therefore, only relative information can be deduced. This procedure is repeated until only one big cluster is left. Obesity is one of the main factors that increases the risk of many diseases and contributes to functional disabilities in tissues such as adipose, liver, and muscle. Masatsugu Niwayama, Yutaka Yamashita. In order to achieve this, the gonadal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) adipose tissues of male BFMI lines, which are spontaneously obese were studied. Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of metabolic complications, which result in a significant health and economic burden. Representation of a spectrum before (left) and after (right) linear baseline correction. An important consideration in the choice of IR cells is the type of window material. The dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been also used to measure fat pad size and body fat distribution as more reliable techniques , however, they are expensive and inaccessible. PDF | Lecture | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate . A drop of liquid is sandwiched, using suitable spacer, between two IR windows that are then mounted in a cell holder. However, application of IR spectroscopy to obesity research is quite limited so far. There are several issues in obesity area that need to be clarified. It should be performed before any scaling or other preprocessing steps, but after baseline correction. Luminescence Spectroscopy An introduction - Format: PDF. In-Vivo NIRS and Muscle Oxidative Metabolism. If the spectrum of a compound comes … Stability of body fat is key point to maintain metabolic homeostasis. spectroscopy 1. The C-H stretching, amide I-IV, and PO42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated. It is also employed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis. Consequently, adipose tissue serves as a main site for activation of the inflammatory response in obesity. It also allows the detection of lower concentrations of biological components ranging from biomolecules, membranes, cells, tissues, and body fluids. Alkohol und Nikotin: Frühintervention, Akutbehandlung und politische Maßnahmen PDF Kindle. Therefore, adipose tissues draw attraction in obesity research. *Address all correspondence to: email@example.com, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications. In this chapter, applications of IR spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to the characterization and understanding the obesity metabolism will be presented. Miura Hajime. Body Mass Index (BMI, also called Quetelet’s Index, in kg/m2) is used widely that is calculated as body weight in kilogram divided by the body height in meters squared. Therefore, the spectrum of the buffer is subtracted from the spectrum of liposomes at corresponding temperatures. In the study, 75 mice were subjected to a control, high-fat or high-fat-high carbohydrate diets. The other factors while choosing solvent are that it should be as nonpolar as possible to minimize solute–solvent interactions; and it should not strongly absorb IR radiation. The presence of bound water molecules is not only required for the structural stability of the lipid bilayer , but also to control the dynamics and structure of lipid bilayer phases  and proteins [29, 30]. Biospectroscopy is an analytical multistep process, including sample preparation, spectral acquisition, pre-processing, and computational analysis. Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy in Diagnosis of Obesity, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications, Marwa El-Azazy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81216. The rats were fed with diets containing menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CO) for 4 weeks. Usually, the spacer is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) with a variety of thickness is used. This inflammatory state is associated with increased accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissues along with the production of inflammatory cytokines and their secretion into the circulation (e.g., adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL6, IL10, TNFα, macrophage migration inhibitory factor , and components of the renin-angiotensin system ). The results suggested that the consumption of COS-RS complexes exerted a more efficient recovery of insulin sensitivity compared to individual treatments . (2019, February 26). Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Main points of the chapter 1. Since each molecule will have its own unique vibrational characteristics, each molecule possesses a unique IR spectrum. In a recent study, electrical activity was induced by transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS). By Khayelihle Ncama, Lembe S. Magwaza, Asanda Mditshwa and Samson Z. Tesfay, By Héctor Herrera Hernández, Adriana M. Ruiz Reynoso, Juan C. Trinidad González, Carlos O. González Morán, José G. Miranda Hernández, Araceli Mandujano Ruiz, Jorge Morales Hernández and Ricardo Orozco Cruz. This is technique is not useful for the detection of chromophore in complex compounds. VAT has higher amount of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), IL6 and higher expression of glucocorticoid, androgen, AT1 and beta-3 adrenergic receptor than in the subcutaneous tissue.  studied the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on lipolysis. Hard tissues are first exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide for fixation and infiltration, and then are embedded into polyethylene methyl methacrylate (PMMA) along with a polymerization accelerator . The large number of wavelengths emitted by these systems makes it possible to investigate their structures in detail, including the electron configurations of ground and various excited states. In another obesity research , which targets to identify specific gene loci, regulating obesity in BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was performed as a novel phenotyping tool. If the crystal size of the sample is too large, excessive scattering of radiation results, especially at high wavenumbers (this is known as the Christiansen effect) . Different kinds of embedding media can be used for soft and hard tissues. In the ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, which are important for their structure and activity. Furthermore, supervised analysis methods have not been applied to IR spectra yet for the obesity differentiation. A state of excessive accumulation of body fat results in simultaneous development of a number of metabolic pathologies including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, fatty liver disease, coronary heart diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases [6, 7, 8]. The referred study will shed light to the understanding of the generation of insulin resistance in obesity without high fat diet induction . This could originate from it possessing a lower amount of brown adipose tissue. The position of the spectral bands allows us to do band assignments. These associations are affected by adipose tissue distributions. PC1 versus PC2 scores plot of the second derivative vector normalized spectra in the same range of SCAT (C) and VAT (D). In others, you let the sample first absorb light and then measure the wavelength of light emitted. Then, mixture is ground with an agate mortar and subjected to a pressure of 10 ton in-2 (1.575 x 105 kg m-2) in an evacuated die. Besides aqueous samples, dry samples, homogeneous soft tissues, or hard tissues can also be studied with the ATR–IR spectroscopy by directly placing a small portion of the sample on the crystal and then applying the same pressure to all the samples. Chemical shifts (what type is it) c. Integration (how many are there) 2. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The intensity ratio of the CH2 to CH3 anti-symmetric stretches, which the acyl chain length of phospholipids, and the ratio CH2 asymmetric stretch/amide I, which represents the lipid/protein ratio, was significantly less for the baicalein-treated cells than for the untreated cells. IR spectroscopy presents the great power in the biomedical research area due to mentioned advantages above, high sensitivity and ease application, Furthermore, IR spectroscopy is concerned as a high throughput technique that is very practical to quantify the alteration of structure, function, composition and distribution, of biologically relevant components in samples. It is applied before data analysis but should be kept minimum not to introduce some artifacts and should be performed in the right order. The crystals used in ATR cells are made from materials that have low solubility in water and are of a very high refractive index. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. The applied pressure should allow until the strongest spectral bands to appear with an intensity extending beyond 70% T, and care should be given to provide uniform contact of the sample with crystal. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the mid and near IR spectroscopy in obesity research. In recent years, since BAT have been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and related metabolic diseases, targeting BAT, thermogenesis and monitoring BAT metabolism might hold a possible therapeutic potential for these metabolic diseases. A recent article discussed the potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor obesity from the triglyceride spectral band located around 1730 cm−1 . A variable aperture is placed in this image plane. This makes them promising animal models for spontaneous obesity. The material must be transparent to the incident IR radiation and normally alkali halides are used in transmission methods [20, 22, 23]. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 weeks old male control (DBA/2 J) (n = 6) and four different obese BFMI mice lines (n = 6 per group). In vector normalization, the sum of all intensity values squared of normalized mean-centered spectrum is equal to 1. According to this metric, the grading of body fatness can be classified as overweight (BMI: 25–30 kg/m2), obese (BMI: 30–40 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) . Available from: Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, Experimental sampling protocol of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Data analysis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Application of IR spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, N–H and O–H symmetric stretching: mainly N–H stretching (amide A) of proteins with the little contribution from O–H stretching of polysaccharides, carbohydrates and water, Olefinic = CH stretching vibration: unsaturated lipids, cholesterol esters, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Altinbas University, Turkey, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey. Gazi et al. This study showed the efficiency and suitability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence various traits and heightened the power of gene mapping studies. In recent years, there have been considerable advances in FTIR microscopy by reaching sample size at the order of microns. Photon Migration in NIRS Brain Imaging. Pages 21-35 . IR spectroscopy consists of far, mid, and near IR spectroscopy. Contact our London head office or media team here. Based on this fact, vibrational spectroscopy has been considered as a golden tool in the characterization of molecular structure. 1] It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. Spectroscopy Foundations of Spectroscopy - Format: PDF. In this method, the two spectra with the highest similarity (i.e., spectra with the smallest spectral distance) are merged into a cluster and then the distances between this cluster and all other spectra are calculated. This technique can reduce a large scale of spectra to a point in a space by using linear transformation. The IR detector may detect IR light at a single point, a linear array or a focal plane array to view different sections of the sample. It is known that obesity constitutively results in storage of triglycerides in different adipose tissues . Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. After the embedding procedure, 2-micron tissue sections are obtained with a cryotome [38, 39] and tissue samples are thaw-mounted on IR-transparent CaF2 or BaF2 windows for IR mapping and data processing. The representative spectral maps of lipid/protein and olefinic/protein ratios belong to the inguinal adipose tissue of control (left side) and obese (right side) male mice lines. micromachining and CD recording are examples of applications of these processes. Compared to unsupervised methods (simple clustering methods), supervised methods (classification and identification methods) can be used to train a model to create classes or in order to predict the class of unknown samples. Because they are supervised methods, there is a need for cross-validation and independent validation dataset. Thermo. In conclusion, the VAT and especially, the SCAT samples can be easily examined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in human studies and this combined technique will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in medical research . When a beam of radiation enters a crystal, if the angle of incidence at the interface between the sample and crystal is greater than the critical angle, incident radiation will undergo total internal reflection . Fundamentals and Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Yutaka Yamashita, Masatsugu Niwayama. The epididymal adipose tissue, liver, and muscle of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains fed with high fat diet were used to analyze the role of white adipose tissue as a mediator of inflammation. essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis To this end we have integrated the discus-sion of IR and Raman group frequencies into different classes of organic groups. For example, the mechanism of the protective role of fatty acids, the effect of macrophage localization and origin to induce inflammation in adipose tissue and ER stress induced response of different organs such as liver, adipose tissue, anti-obesity effect of diets, therapeutic effect of drug, structural characterization of obese human membranes, tissues and organs are still not exactly known and further researches are required. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. The most significant advance in IR spectroscopy is the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the spectrometers. If absorbed energy is plotted as a function of wavenumber, an IR spectrum is observed. Different from other methods, Ward’s algorithm tries to find as homogeneous groups as possible. In order to apply this technique, a solid sample is mixed with a dry alkali halide powder. Both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and its counterpart, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy, have been accepted as important means for carrying out not only nanostructure characterization but also label-free chemical and biological sensing. They differ in their degree of vascularization and innervation. . Built by scientists, for scientists. Before producing an IR sample in solution, a suitable solvent must be chosen. How? In membrane studies, since the OH stretching bands (3400–3200 cm−1 and 1800–1500 cm−1) due to the buffer, these bands overlap with the bands of interest. Dunkhunthod et al. For example, TNFα and IL6 contribute to the induction of insulin resistance  and are associated with increased glucose levels and altered lipid metabolism [54, 55]. This allows both spatial and spectral information about the sample structure to be collected. Some popular sampling techniques and accessories will be discussed below. Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of the wavelength or frequency of the radiation. Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. This process continues until the two spectra (spectrum/spectrum or spectrum/cluster or cluster/cluster) are merged into a new cluster. This spectrum is quite complex and contains several bands, which arise from different functional groups belonging to biomolecules of the system. Such materials include Diamond, zinc selenide (ZnSe), germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and thallium/iodide. Amerikanische … Abstract Algebra with Applications: Volume 2: Rings and Fields: Rings and Fields v. 2 (Chapman & Hall/CRC Pure and Applied Mathematics) by Karlheinz Spindler (1993-10-18) PDF Download. Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan (November 5th 2018). Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV, produced by the deceleration of high-energy … The Application of Reflectance Spectroscopy to Chert Provenance of Mississippian Symbolic Weaponry Therefore, visceral fat is thought to be the more dangerous adipose tissue. 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