Altgassen et al., 2010; Brandimonte et al., 2010). Merrill Palmer Q. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. doi: 10.1159/000355057, Jeong, J. M., and Cranney, J. J. Dev. 78, 507–518. Memory, the encoding, storage, and retrieval in the human mind of past experiences. This induces a change in resource allocation policies to the prospective memory task through strategic monitoring (Smith and Bayen, 2004; Smith and Hunt, 2014; but see Meier and Rey-Mermet, 2012). Psychol. Meier, B., Matter, S., and Zimmermann, T. (2006a). Mem. Brain Theory 4, 247–263. Psychol. Res. The association between memory coherence and PTSD has also been topic of intense debate over the past few years (see Brewin, 2016; Rubin et al., 2016a,b). Conscious. This is particularly important when faced with negative or stressful experiences. Feelings of intimacy and closeness create a safe context to disclose specific personal information, which in turn increases intimacy (Beike et al., 2016). So, memory specificity facilitates practical problem solving, whereas memory coherence promotes the process of emotional problem solving. If this were to be the case when coding for memory specificity, such a memory would be categorized as a general memory because the experience described lasts longer than 1 day. First, the difficulty of the ongoing task can be varied (e.g., Marsh et al., 2002; McNerney and West, 2007; Khan et al., 2008; West et al., 2011). This could in turn make the individual vulnerable for the development of emotional disorders. Einstein et al., 2005). doi: 10.1017/S0033291700030348, Fivush, R. (2010). For the latter, participants were told to write down every product they associated with a certain brand. In summary, studies with relative importance manipulations typically showed enhanced prospective memory performance. When trying to position complex cognitive phenomena like memory specificity and memory coherence in a theoretical model, we have to make certain assumptions. Typically, we have more than one active intention and often, one intention is more important than another one. However, there was an interaction between age-group and importance manipulation, which showed that younger adults were not influenced by the importance manipulation. More specifically, studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory can predict the course and onset of depression over and above initial depressive symptoms (Sumner et al., 2010). Copyright © 2017 Vanderveren, Bijttebier and Hermans. Different mechanisms can interrupt this search, whether or not in interaction with each other, and lead to overgeneral memory. Sharing autobiographical memories with others facilitates the formation and maintenance of a social network. J. Behav. The results showed that children remembered the more attractive tasks more often than the less attractive tasks, suggesting that the attractiveness of a task increased the importance and, as a consequence, the likelihood to remember (see also Aberle et al., 2010; Kliegel et al., 2010; Ślusarczyk and Niedźwieńska, 2013, for similar replications). Moreover, the prospective memory task was embedded in an ongoing task (a short-term memory task). Cogn. Individuals who experience difficulty with narrating about personal experiences in a coherent manner show more internalizing as well as externalizing symptoms. How do these two characteristics of autobiographical memory relate to each other, both theoretically and empirically? Einstein, G. O., and McDaniel, M. A. Positioning memory coherence at the most specific level of the Self-Memory System raises additional hypotheses about the relations between memory coherence, memory specificity, and the self. This elaborative style of reminiscing about personal experiences, especially about negative or stressful experiences, is related to numerous adaptive outcomes (Fivush et al., 2006). Is task interference in event-based prospective memory dependent on cue presentation? Prospective memory performance and ongoing task costs for studies on relative performance (top) and possible outcome for absolute importance manipulations (bottom). So, it seems that episodic amnesia interferes with generating details about events instead of binding them into a coherent narrative, suggesting that damage to the hippocampus may influence the ability to recall specific events differently than the ability to create coherent narratives (Keven et al., 2017). However, in experimental research, importance is typically induced by the experimenter. We have also focused on whether importance manipulations affect resource allocation polices or not—that is whether strategic monitoring is necessary or whether automatic retrieval is sufficient. Psychol. In this paper, we take a closer look at two particular features of autobiographical memories and how they both relate to the self: memory specificity and memory coherence. Sci. Cogn. doi: 10.1037/abn0000126, Sales, J. M., and Fivush, R. (2005). Soc. doi: 10.1023/A:1005615331901, Brewin, C. R. (2014). Memory 12, 553–561. Although the Self-Memory System is just one of many available theoretical models, we have chosen this model because it offers an interesting theoretical framework to look at how memory specificity and memory coherence could potentially be integrated. Meacham and Singer, 1977; Kvavilashvili, 1987; Einstein et al., 2005). Some studies focus for example on aspects of global coherence (i.e., life story coherence) whereas other studies look at local coherence of the trauma memory in particular. One aspect of the long-term self is the conceptual self, which consists of attitudes, values, beliefs, relational schemas etc. 65, 38–47. Psychol. Research has shown that patients who suffer from depression or PTSD have more difficulty recalling specific memories following emotional cues than healthy controls. 45, 151–162. Not being able to imagine specific future happenings has been found to evoke feelings of hopelessness (Evans et al., 1992; Williams et al., 1996). Dev. More specifically, memory incoherence has been associated with depressive symptoms, behavioral problems, and PTSD (e.g., Foa et al., 1995; von Klitzing et al., 2000; von Klitzing et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2014; Stadelmann et al., 2015). Autobiographical memory in obsessive compulsive disorder. doi: 10.1037/a0036624, Jelinek, L., Randjbar, S., Seifert, D., Kellner, M., and Moritz, S. (2009). For this integration section, we based ourselves on Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, which offers a potential framework to look at the relationship between memory specificity and memory coherence and how they relate to the self. 53, 594–628. Soc. doi: 10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.117, Conway, M. A. Psychol. Besides being more coherent when reminiscing with others later in life (e.g., Fivush and Fromhoff, 1988), children from elaborative mothers also tend to have a more coherent and consistent self-concept (Welch-Ross et al., 1999; Bird and Reese, 2006) and a more advanced emotional understanding (Laible, 2004). Second, an additional ongoing task can be added, thus requiring divided attention (e.g., Kliegel et al., 2001, 2004; Khan et al., 2008). Emot. Brandimonte, M. A., Ferrante, D., Bianco, C., and Villani, M. G. (2010). Given the similarities between memory specificity and memory coherence, we hypothesize that at least a moderate positive association could be expected between them. Psychol. Besides these similarities, there are some conditions in which memory specificity and memory coherence seem to differ from one another. In about two minutes, you’ll be asked to recall this list to see how you did. For example, driving home in rush hour traffic is more likely to cause us to forget to buy groceries along the way than driving home on an empty road. Cognit. Overgeneral autobiographical memory as a predictor of the course of depression: a meta-analysis. Evidence for an association between memory specificity and memory coherence would for example allow for a more extensive empirical and theoretical integration of these two domains in the future. 24, 116–125. Prioritizing the ongoing task reduced the cost compared to prioritizing the prospective memory task, but it also resulted in lower prospective memory task performance (see Marsh et al., 1998, for a detailed discussion of this issue). J. Genet. They threw a big party at their house. Clin. To understand more about how your sleep is affected, download the “ Unlocking the Pillars of Health ” eBook. We tested both younger and older adults (older adults were tested because of the suggestion that they are differentially susceptible to PI). Autobiographical memory decline in Alzheimer’s disease, a theoretical and clinical overview. Int. Number of cues influences the cost of remembering to remember. Therefore, the cache has a shorter access time than the memory, which is faster than the main memory. Dev. Dev. However, some studies suggest that this is not necessarily the case and that other factors also influence prospective memory performance (Kliegel et al., 2001, 2004; Loft and Yeo, 2007; Brandimonte et al., 2010). Psychol. Emot. 14, 127–144. They had to press a special key whenever a specific word appeared during the word task. We also take into account the role of the specific kind of prospective memory task, effects of cognitive loads and processing overlaps that may interact with task importance. 8, 141–166. The results of the laboratory studies using a reward to produce importance suggested a change in resource allocation policies. Do preschoolers remember what to do? (2008, Experiment 2) also investigated whether the effect of relative importance on monitoring costs is dependent on the actual occurrence of prospective memory targets. 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