Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. According to leading Safavid historian Rudi Mathee, “while Iran’s economic output is unknown and probably unknowable, it is clear that its contribution to worldwide economic activities was relatively slight.” However, this should not imply that Safavid Iran’s impact was somehow irrelevant or nonexistent. It was this privileged treatment that arguably propelled New Julfa to “unparalleled heights of economic prosperity.”. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. For example, according to Mathee, “in terms of economic output, Iran, with its small population and limited resources, lagged far behind the more populous areas of south and west Asia.” Yet, despite only having a population of approximately ten million people, its geographic location served as a “crucial entrepot for a number of commodities.” This included the export of silk to the West, overland and maritime trade of various consumer goods from India and southeast Asia westward, and the flow of precious metals back into the Indian subcontinent. “Of Jewels and Horses: The Career and Patronage of an Iranian Merchant under Shah Jahan.”, Levi, Scott C. “India xiii. Section I: For Teachers Overview (Reference for Teachers): This overview will summarize important information regarding three coexisting economies connected to Indian Ocean Trade. However, because the stretch of road from Lahore to Qandahar is so well known, we will instead focus on the route as it begins in Qandahar. According to Elphinstone, the environs of Balkh, highlighted in yellow below (Figure 5), encompassed the “the valleys between the Hindu Kush and Oxus River.” Balkh was a key province that included many districts north of the Hindu Kush, and according to Elphinstone, the province had a population of around one million people. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. Ultimately, the product of these trends points towards the emergence of a truly global economy. But in the seventeenth century the Ottoman threat to the Safavids declined. The Persian carpet and textile industries flourished with his support, and Abbas extended a royal monopoly over silk, which was exported in immense quantities. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. Some of these manufactured articles included: cotton cloth, indigo, saltpeter, spices, opium, sugar, silk cloth, yarn, salt, beads, borax, turmeric, lac, sealing wax and drugs of various kinds.  Furthermore, one can argue that Qandahar’s significance gravitates southward due to its ties to maritime trade routes. Science and Technology By: Cole Brandser In 1514, the Safavid were not very technologically advanced. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. The Safavid Empire, based in Persia , ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736. The primary consequence of this system resulted in the mass export of bullion received from the silk trade with the West to the Indian subcontinent in an attempt to balance the trade deficit. Floor and Herzig, Arduous Travelling, 211. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). Decline of the Safavid Empire Many factors played into the decline and fall of the Safavid Empire. Safavid history is rife with clashes and wars between the Shi'a Muslim Safavid Persians and the Sunni Ottoman Turks. Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent and belonged to a unique order of Sufi -infused Shi'a Islam called Safaviyya. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The export aspect of Safavid Iran’s transit economy centered chiefly around the trading of silk. Wealth and power for respect Divorce wasn't a difficult process Arabic and Persian languages are similar Women: If you got divorced after being married, it was easy to divorce To gain wealth and power, women became prostitutes Prostituting included dancing, singing, along with For this reason, the role which Iran’s economy played during the Safavid era was essential to laying the foundation for the modern global economy as we know it. lacked system of hereditary succession, Baxter, “Commerce, Empire and Faith in Safavid Iran: the Caravanserai of Isfahan,”. According to historians, since time immemorial agriculture has always been the backbone of economy of the country. During the reign of Shah Abbas (1588-1629), the Safavid conquest of Gilan, Mazandaran and Julfa saw the forced migration of Armenian populations to Isfahan. You just clipped your first slide! In India, in places as varied as Surat, Ahmedabad and Agta, interest rates fell from 72per centto 6-9 per cent per annum between the 1620s and the 1680s,21 The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Econonry 37 ln an annual minimum of 6 per cent was charged in Sural.zz In lran, in con- 1697, trast, commercial loans around 7640 carriedanannualinterest oft5 to 20 per cent, while Banyan … , A majority of Iran’s silk production occurred in the areas near the Caspian Sea. In addition to the caravanserais, an integral part of Iran’s transit economy was the vast network of trade routes used by merchants to transport goods and services in and out of the country. The Safavid empire relied heavily on the Silk road trade route. Consequently, much like the trade of precious metals and silk, the trade of livestock from Safavid Iran using central Asian trade routes served to bolster Iran’s impact as a key player in the growing global economy. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. It is in this critical time period where the foundation for modern terms such as “globalization” and “interconnected global economy” was first laid. Secondly, this paper will consult sources which focus on the economic relationship between the Mughal Empire, Europe, and the Safavid Empire during this time period. During the expansion of the empire, the Safavid regime closely resembled the Aqquyunlu and Timurid regimes that it supplanted. Safavid, 220 AD, of The Safavid Empire, passed away in the sad year of 1722 by bankrupting itself and weakening its economy/army. ECONOMY. Given Iran’s geographic position, many transactions took place as goods were shipped East and West. Safavid Persian Empire's national animal is the Lion, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. Strengths of the Safavid Empire.  Many chose the maritime route, but those who decided on taking the overland route were often trying to maximize their profits by trading en route to their destination. The Safavids were admired for The Silk Road which led through northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century. As such, they were often frequented by traveling merchants and quickly became vital to profitable commercial activity for those merchants. Their religious… This is your place to remember Safavid. The purpose of this paper is to disprove this theory in three stages. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because Firstly, it will analyze the role that the Safavid economy played within the rapidly developing economic system itself. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls, and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a specie in I… When did organ music become associated with baseball? The Shah’s that followed Shah Abbas were ineffectual towards the empire. Safavid dynasty, ruling dynasty of Iran from 1501 to 1736, known especially for its architectural achievements and its establishment of Twelver Shi‘ism among various ethnic and linguistic groups throughout Iran as a major unifying factor. Weaknesses of the Safavid Empire. Geographical discoveries, in general, and bypassing the Cape of Good Hope, in particular, in South Africa, changed traditional trade routes in Iran’s international trade. Handwoven carpets were very popular. Safavid era (1501–1729) begins a new age in the history of Iran. However, the use of the word “unbalanced” is not meant to imply a sense of instability or weakness, but rather represent the unique way in which the Safavid economy was positioned within the larger global economic system as a whole. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. Caravanserais were similar to hotels, and were most commonly found along popular trade routes in the region. In the case of Julfa specifically, its destruction at the hands of Shah Abbas during the Safavid-Ottoman war of 1603-05, and the subsequent forced migration of the native Armenian population, led to the rise of New Julfa, a wealthy mercantile suburb in Isfahan. )” When conflict between the Mughals and Safavids broke out over control of Qandahar, this served to destabilize the safety of the overland route, thus generating more profits for the maritime route. Celebrate the life of Safavid Empire from Safavid Empire. Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. The presence of the caravanserais serves to further the claim that the flow of goods and services through Safavid Iran was constant. In the case of the exchange of western bullion for eastern silk, neither the bullion that was imported nor all of the silk that was exported originated in Iran itself.  In regards to exports, the Mughals also had the Safavids bested in terms of the amount and type of goods and services exported. In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I. Nov 12, 1508. Having established that Safavid Iran’s transit economy did in fact play a significant role during a crucial time for global economic development, we can now more closely examine the logistics of Iran’s transport of goods and services both East and West. Ottoman (& safavid) empire 1450 1750 1. Economy in Mughal Empire was dependent on agriculture, trade and other industries. The Safavid Empire was held together in the early years by conquering new territory, and then by the need to defend it from the neighbouring Ottoman Empire. It also came to terms with the Tajik aristocracy, which included the established ulama.  While passing through Qandahar on their way from India to Iran, Steel and Crowther reported that, “prior to the start of these hostilities, around 1614, not more than 3,000 camels used to ply the India-Qandahar-Iran trade route annually, while after that year their number increased to 12,000 and even 14,000.” Furthermore, Steel and Crowther estimated that “the value of the goods per camel was 120-130 rupees, so the total value of trade that year was about 1.4-1.8 million rupees (16-20 metric tones of silver. Safavid Empire Economy. Its founder was Sheikh Safi Al-Din (1252-1334), after whom it is named. The other highly valued commodity is horses. Instead, the gold was exported to India to balance the previously mentioned trade deficit, and the commodities imported from India were shipped to the West to obtain more gold in an attempt to further balance the trade deficit. “Modernity and Nation-making in India, Turkey and Iran.”, Gommans, Jos. While some of these goods, services, and materials were absorbed into the Safavid economy, many continued to be exported elsewhere. These fluctuating trade patterns began to generate nascent economic, political, and social trends the likes of which had never been seen before. Additionally, since there are very few detailed accounts of trade routes like this one in this area of the world, it falls within the scope of this paper’s analysis. One way that Safavid Iran promoted business opportunities within its borders was by establishing an elaborate system of caravanserais. Additionally, Safavid Iran’s complex relationship with Mughal India laid the foundation for some of the most important trade routes in all of Asia. Though one could certainly make the argument that the empire reached its zenith during his time as shah. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … vii.  Furthermore, differences between the two economies, on a larger scale, can be observed in the vastly different approaches implemented by Mughal and Safavid rulers at the time. Baxter. Firstly, it is important to note that while Safavid Iran’s economy may have seemed insignificant due to its smaller size, upon closer inspection, it is clear that the amount of commercial activity which occurred within its borders was surprisingly plentiful and perhaps nearly as diverse as some comparatively larger states of the time.  Shah Abbas then used the far-reaching Armenian diaspora in order to expand the impressive Safavid silk trade well into economies and metropolitan areas all over Europe and Asia.  Based on these observations, it is important to understand the political, cultural, social, and economic dynamics between west and south Asia during this time as an “interactive continuum” and not as “discrete and self-contained political entities.” Therefore, prior to delving into specific pieces of supporting evidence, we must adopt a working understanding of the Safavid transit economy as one which had a far larger impact on the developing global economy than previously thought.. The geographic area that this paper will explore is highlighted below in Figure 1. Scott C. Levi, “India xiii. Bryce, O’Gorman, and Baxter, “Commerce, Empire,” 205. Whereas, comparatively, one could argue that Kabul’s influence gravitates northward due to its proximity to the overland silk trade routes, such as the famed “Silk Road.” In order to obtain a more holistic understanding of precisely how caravans traveled throughout south, central, and west Asia, we will use the Qandahar-Isfahan trade route and the province of Balkh, in modern Afghanistan, as case studies. Over time, thanks to the military might of the foreign trading companies, the overland route gradually became safer. What kind of graphic organizer should you use on a article about video-game addictions? Artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade.They produced textiles, ceramics, metalwork, carpet, and many other media that contributed to the development of art across the region. Iran had also declined militarily, leaving it more vulnerable to invasion, which came out of the east.  Furthermore, according to historian Jos Gommans, these horses were “initially sold at the local markets of Balkh, Bukhara and Herat, of which the latter also became an outlet for the minor Iranian market.” Elphinstone goes on to support this claim by stating that the finest horses in Afghanistan originated from Turkistan, north of Kabul and Qandahar, and that details regarding the various breeds to be purchased could be found in Balkh, along with their prices.. The Safavid Empire was predeceased by The Mongol Empire.  According to Willem Floor and Edmund Herzig, “to Iran, Qandahar was a very important source of revenue, and its importance may also explain why there were intermittent military conflicts between the Mughals and Safavids over who controlled the city.” By the account of two British East India Company merchants, Richard Steel and John Crowther, in 1614: “Merchants of India assemble at Lahore, and invest a great part of their monies in commodities, and joyne themselves in caravans to passe the mountaines of Candahar into Persia, by which way is generally reported to passe twelve or fourteen thousand camels lading, whereas heretofore scarsly passed three thousand, the rest going by way or Ormus.” Accordingly, we can deduce that Indian merchants used the camel as a technology by which to transport massive amounts of goods overland via the Qandahar-Isfahan route. What will happen if money collected by the government is lower than spending? What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran’s position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. Safavid Iran generated economic growth by capitalizing on transit trade, or the business associated with the passage of goods and services through a territory to their final destination. Furthermore, this map also highlights several important ancient trade routes which will be discussed in later sections of this paper. Both the Ottoman and Mughal empires benefitted from the agricultural revenue of their land, as well as control of trade. As an empire, the Safavids succeeded in placing the nomadic people groups of the regi…  Furthermore, the abundant economic activity which transpired was fueled by Iran’s geographic location between the highly productive Orient and the consumption hungry West. In relation to Safavid Iran’s “more fragile economic circumstance,” the Safavids managed to accumulate a “trade deficit with the Indian subcontinent, which stood in contrast to the country’s position vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire and Russia.” This is because the overarching economic strategy of Safavid Iran was to generate economic growth by leveraging its geographic position and emphasis on the transit, and not the production, of goods – with the exception of silk. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. One of these empires is the Safavids. These military tactics, however, had been out dated and made obsolete by the new tactics and strategies of the surrounding empires. Copyright © 2021 Multiply Media, LLC. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? This is due to one simple fact: Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. Safavid Empire Made by: Megan Powell, Vicky Rodriguez, Keely Hoppmeyer, and Brennen Powell Safavid vs Other Empires Social: The Safavids gave women more rights while the Ottomans tried to remain more traditional Mughals began to take away women's freedoms such a making them veil Proceeds are donated to charity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. He was a disciple of the famed Sufi grand master Sheikh Zahed Gilani (1216 - 1301) of Lahijan. The Safavid dynasty (/ ˈ s æ f ə v ɪ d, ˈ s ɑː-/; Persian: دودمان صفوی , romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. While Elphinstone’s account was written after the fall of the Safavid Empire, the trade route that passes through Balkh and Iran certainly existed well before his time. While more “traditional” economies For example, maritime trade routes from Bandar Abbas to Surat saw the transport of enormous amounts of precious metals between the Safavid and Mughal empires. In the year 1722, Afghan invaders, of the Sunni branch of Islam, reached the Safavid capital, Isfahan. Encouraged trade by developing the Persian infrastructure. Finally, the paper will examine the trade routes used to transport goods and services in and out of Iran. All Rights Reserved. Abbas 1 of Persia Abbas 1 of Persia came into power after his predecisor Mohammad had resigned. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Comparatively, India’s economy under the Mughal Empire had a far more diversified portfolio of imports and exports than Safavid Iran’s transit economy. With the beginning of the Safavid dynasty in Iran, Albuquerque, a Portuguese general, conquered Hormoz Island in southern Iran. Evidence of this phenomenon is fairly well documented, as it served as the catalyst which transformed civilizations in nearly every corner of the world. “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750.”, Bryce, Derek, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. 1450 – 1750 Janet Pareja, Signature School, Evansville, IN 2. French explorer Jean Chardin (d. 1713), who spent time in Isfahan during the 17th century, estimated that there were around 500,000 people living in the city. The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. Originally published by Middle Eastern Communities and Migrations Student Research Papers, James Madison University Scholarly Commons, 06.27.2017, under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license. According to Stephen Dale, “Mughal rulers had the luxury of being able merely to preside over a powerful laissez faire economy that allowed them to have what was essentially a free-trade foreign economic policy, while Shah Abbas instituted a kind of state capitalism and an Iranian mercantilism to develop and protect his state’s more fragile economic circumstance.” It is important to note, however, that the extent of Safavid Iran’s economic impact does not begin or end with the reign of Shah Abbas. The transport of goods and services used overland and maritime routes, some more well known than others. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. The first result of this was that the military forces became less effective. Founded by Shah Ismail I, the empire … Islamic Empires to 1600 Ottoman 1289-1923 Safavid Mughal 1526 - 1857 1501-1722 Some of the silk originated in the Orient, and the bullion originated in the West. Thus, in the Mughal era also agriculture was actually the biggest source of income. The seventeenth century ushered in a plethora of changes in global trade patterns. 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy? The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Safavid Persian Empire is ranked 23,814 th in the world and 20 th in Greater Middle East for Largest Furniture Restoration Industry, scoring 4,956.38 on the Spitz-Pollish Productivity Index . How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy. “Commerce, Empire and Faith in Safavid Iran: The Caravanserai of Isfahan.”, Dale, Stephen. Handwoven carpets were very popular. Finally, we turn to Mountstuart Elphinstone’s (d. 1859) Account of the Kingdom of Caubul to review his observations of an alternative Indo-Iranian trade route via the province of Balkh in modern day Afghanistan. Some of these camel caravans used an alternative route by way of modern day Hormuz. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. Indo-Iranian Commercial Relations.”, Mathee, Rudi. How much money do you start with in monopoly revolution? This phenomenon can again be observed when analyzing the dynamics involved in the exchange of western bullion for various spices, textiles, and services imported from India. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in Ind… The Silk Road, which led through northern Iran to India, revived in the sixteenth century. It is survived by Iran. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. In exchange for the silk, Iran received a sizeable influx of gold and bullion from the West, and from Russia to the north as well. When discussing the Qandahar-Isfahan route, it is important to note that this route actually starts in Lahore and not Qandahar. By Connor J. HamelCompetitive Intelligence AnalystAccenture Federal Services. Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine The Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine was origanly built in 799, but was ordered to be reconstructed in 1508. There are several contributing factors which resulted in Safavid Iran’s comparatively irregular economic construction. 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